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Referencing with APA: Examples P-S

Packaging

To be made up of:

Manufacturer
Year of production
Title (in italics)
Media type

In-text citation:

The packaging (Mars Incorporated, 2013)…

Reference list:

Mars Incorporated. (2013). Mars Bar (wrapper).

Painting or Drawing

To be made up of:

Artist
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details/location 

In-text citation:

Works by Dali (1958)…

(Leibovitz, 1996, p. 72)

Reference list:

Dali, S. (1958). Madonna (oil on canvas). London: Tate Gallery.

Leibovitz, A. (1996). Olympic portraits. Boston: Little Brown.

Pamphlet

To be made up of:

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

In-text citation:

The pamphlet (Royal College of Physicians, 2008)…

Reference list:

Royal College of Physicians, British Geriatrics Society, British Pain Society. (2008). The assessment of pain in younger people: local guidelines [Pamphlet]. London: RCP.

Parish Register

To be made up of:

Name of person/people (in single quotation marks)
Year of publication
Baptism, marriage or burial of ... (in single quotation marks)
Day/month/year of event
Location of parish (in italics)
Title of register/ details (in italics)
Retrieved from…
 

In-text citation:

Alex and Alice’s wedding (‘Alex Jones and Alice Roberts’, 1934)…

Reference list:

‘Alex Jones and Alice Roberts’. (1934). ‘Marriage of Alex Jones and Alice Roberts, 1934 May 5’. In St Andrew’s Church, Bishopthorpe, York marriage register 1900-1950. Retrieved from http://www.genuki.org.uk/bishopthorpe

Patents

To be made up of:

Inventor(s)
Year of publication/invention
Title (in italics)
Authorising organisation
Patent number
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

Fredericks (2012) proposed a solution…

Reference list:

Fredericks, F. (2012). Vinyl cleaning tool. In UK Intellectual Property Office Patent no. GB2468906. Retrieved from http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p/find-publication

Personal Communication

To be made up of:

Sender/speaker/author
Date of communication 
Medium of communication
Receiver of communication

In-text citation:

This was disputed by Smith (2012).

Reference list:

Smith, D. (2012, August 13). Conversation with Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, January 23). Letter to Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, August 14). Email to Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, December 25). Telephone conversation with Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, June 21). Skype conversation with Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, June 14). Text message to Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, December 17). Fax to Steven Jones. 

Phonecast

To be made up of:

Title of phonecast (in italics)
Media type
Year of production
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

Zuckerberg created his website in 2004 (A conversation with Mark Zuckerberg, 2007)…

Reference list:

A conversation with Mark Zuckerberg (phonecast). (2007). Retrieved from http://www.phonecasting.com/Channel/View/Channel.aspx

Photographic Prints or Slides

To be made up of:

Photographer
Year of publication
Title of photograph (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

In-text citation:

It is ever so clear (Tebow, 2009)…

Reference list:

Tebow, T. (2009). York at night (photograph). York: Here and There Publishing.

Photograph (from the internet)

To be made up of:

Photographer (surname followed by initials)
Year of production (in round brackets)
Title of work (in italics)
[Medium]
Retrieved from URL

 

In-text citation:

The great photograph (Jarvis, 2015)…

Reference list:

Jarvis, C. (2015). Blue [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.chasejarvis.com/#s=10&mi=2&pt=1&pi=10000&p=8&a=0&at=0

Plays

To be made up of:

Director
Date of play
Title of play
Location of play

In-text citation:

It was a spectacular piece of engineering (Smith, 2013).

Reference list:

Smith, D. (Director). (2013, January 18). Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, Theatre Royal, York.

Podcast

To be made up of:

Author/Producer
Year and date of publication
Title (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

It was clear that George Osborne was well out of his depth (Smith, 2015).

(Wallace, 2015)

Reference list:

Smith, J. (Producer). (2015, June 4). Yesterday in Parliament [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes

Wallace, D. (Spreaker). (2015). The emergent multiverse. [Podcast]. Oxford, England.  University of Oxford.  Retrieved from https://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/plurality-worlds

Postcard

To be made up of:

Artist
Year of publication (if relevant)
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

In-text citation:

The shore was beautiful (Terrence, no date)…

Reference list:

Terrence, T. (no date). Tintagel (postcard). Tintagel, UK: Cornwall Gallery.

Poster

To be made up of:

Artist
Year of publication (if relevant)
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

In-text citation:

The image (Severn, no date)…

Reference list:

Severn, J. (no date). Le Joue (poster). London: Early Morning Publishers.

PowerPoint Presentation

To be made up of:

Author/presenter
Year presentation was given
Title of presentation (in italics)
Media type
Module code and module title (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

The great presentation (Whittingham, 2014)…

Reference list:

Whittingham, D. (2014). History of warfare (PowerPoint presentation). Retrieved from https://intranet.bham.ac.uk

Press Release and Announcement

To be made up of:

Author/Organisation
Date issued 
Title of communication (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

This development (Google Inc., 2015)…

Reference list:

Google Inc. (2015, December 29). Google Maps changes forever (press release). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/intl/en/news

Publication of Internal Organisation

To be made up of:

Name of organization or institution
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Publication details (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

Reports (International Chamber of Commerce, 2010)…

Reference list:

International Chamber of Commerce, Commission for Air Transport. (2010). The need for greater liberalization. Retrieved from http://www.iccwbo.org/liberalization

Quotations

To be made up of:
 
Author/editor
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title (in italics)
Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)
Place of publication: publisher
 
In-text citation for a quote (less than 40 words):
 
Jeff Guy's book View Across the River (2002) is both a biography of the Bishop's daughter, Harriette Emily Colenso, and a broad, comprehensive narrative detailing how the Colenso family and "their African allies, sought to stop a fine nation being trampled out of existence..."(p. 13).
 
In-text citation for a block quote (40 words or more):
 
There are two inherent difficulties in Guy's approach.  The first he addresses himself:
... it remains difficult for historians of women in Empire, to avoid stereotyping and trivializing their subjects, as, for example, the devoted female missionary, the friend of the natives, the dedicated crusader for justice, or the intrepid traveler in the tropics(2002, p.x).

Reference list:

Guy, J. (2002). The view across the river: Harriette Colenso and the Zulu struggle against imperialism. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia.

Qu'ran

To be made up of:

Source type
Surah (or chapter): verse
Publisher (if relevant)

In-text citation:

‘Nothing is hidden from Allah, whether on Earth or in Heaven’ (Qur’an 14:38).

Reference list:

Qur’an, 14:38: Wordsworth Limited Edition.

Radio and Internet Radio

To be made up of:

Producer/author/presenter(s)
Year and date of production
Title of episode 
Media type
Series name
Publication details

In-text citation:

According to the latest research (In our time, 2015)...

(Murray, 2015)

(Silva, 2014)

Reference list:

Morris, T. (Producer), & Bragg, M. (Presenter). (2015, January 1). The Sun [Radio series episode]. In In Our Time. London: BBC Radio 4.

Murray, J. (Presenter). (2015, July 16). Period photos on social media, school skirts a distraction? Anti-extremism. Woman's Hour [Radio programme]. Guest speakers Rup Kaur, Leeanne Coyle, Tracy Mackness, Caroline Lucas, Jessica Ringrose and Emma Nicholson. London, England: BBC Radio 4.

Silva, R. (Presenter). (2014, May 25). SF Said. Four Thought [Podcast radio programme]. London, England: BBC Radio 4. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b043xl9y

Reprinted Works

To be made up of:

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Publication details
Original work published in…

In-text citation:

One of the very first historians (Seaman, 1945/1998)…

Reference list:

Seaman, D. (1998). The king of the truth. London: B.Y. Jove. (Original work published 1945).

Requests for Comments

To be made up of:

Author/editor
Year of publication 
Title (in italics)
Document number
Media type
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

A number of comments were made relating to the document (Hoff, 1995).

Reference list:

Hoff, D. (1995). The Baywatch years (nos: FYA 19 and RFC 5879). Retrieved from http://tools.ietf.org/hoff

Research Reports

To be made up of:

Author (surname followed by initials)
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of report (in italics)
Retrieved from URL or doi:

 

In-text citation:

The minimum cost of living in Yorkshire is £15 000 (Friedland, 2009).

Reference list:

Friedland, B. (2009). A minimum standard for Yorkshire: what people think. Retrieved from http://www.jrf.org.uk/yorkshireresearch

Review (book)

To be made up of:

Name of the reviewer
Year of review
Title of review (in single quotation marks)
Review of… by…
In journal... journal details…

In-text citation:

Stevens (2010) thought that the book…

Reference list:

Stevens, H. (2010). ‘Biology of birds’ (review of ‘the birds and the bees’ by David Bills). In Journal of the History of Biology, 167, 190-192.

Review (drama)

To be made up of:

Name of the reviewer
Date of review
Title of review (in italics)
Review of… by…
In… (insert newspaper title or similar)

In-text citation:

One reviewer (Smith, 2007)…

Reference list:

Smith, U. (2007, July 8). The big finale (review of ‘heaven help me’ by Tony Jones). In the ‘review section’ of The Times.

Review (film)

To be made up of:

Author of review
Date of review
Title of review (in italics)
Directed by…
In…
Page reference (if relevant)

In-text citation:

Barnes (1989) believed it was a classic film…

Reference list:

Barnes, J. (1989, October 9). Citizen Kane (review of ‘Citizen Kane’, directed by Orson Welles). In ‘Empire’ magazine, pp. 25-29.

Review (musical performance)

To be made up of:

Name of the reviewer
Date of review
Title of review
Review of… by…
Location
Magazine/Newspaper title
Page reference (if relevant). 

In-text citation:

Jubb (2015) thought that the performance was incredible.

Reference list:

Jubb, A. (2015, March 29). Absolute magic (review of ‘Clockwork Angels tour’ by Rush, York, UK). In The Press (review section), p. 91.

RSS Feeds

To be made up of:

Author/organisation
Date of Feed 
Title of communication (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

The library extension will be completed in 2016 (University of Birmingham, 2015).

Reference list:

University of Birmingham. (2015, January 26). Library opening (RSS). Retrieved from https://www.bham.ac.uk/feeds/news/178

Scientific Dataset

To be made up of:

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

The data (Shevchenko, 2014)…

Reference list:

Shevchenko, A. (2014). Na levels holdings. Retrieved from http://physics.nist.gov/ajh5

Scientific or Technical Report

To be made up of:

Author(s)
Year of publication 
Title of report (in italics)
Publishing organisation
Report series and number
Place of publication: publisher

In-text citation:

Jones has found (1997)…

Reference list:

Jones, B. (1997). Methods in tumour research. Vol 7. Close analysis of case studies (IARC Scientific Publication no. 46). Manchester, UK: National Agency for Tumour Research.

Screencast

To be made up of:

Title of screencast (in italics)
Media type
Year of publication (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

An online video showed this (Learning rails the zombie way, no date)…

Reference list:

Learning rails the zombie way (screencast). (no date). Retrieved from http://www.rubyonrails.org

Song Lyrics

To be made up of:

Author
Year of production
Title of song and recording artist
On album (in italics)
Media type
Production details

 

In-text citation:

Peart (1976)…

Reference list:

Peart, N. (1976). A passage to Bangkok [Recorded by Rush]. On 2112 [vinyl]. Toronto: Toronto Sound Studios.

Statutory Instrument

To be made up of:

Name/title (in italics)
SI year and number
Year of publication
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

It was made clear (Terrorism Order, 2004)…

Reference list:

Terrorism Order (SI 2004/3354). (2004). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2004/3354/contents/made

Student's own Work

To be made up of:

Student name
Year of essay/assignment
Title of essay/assignment (in italics)
Module code/title (if relevant)
Institution
Unpublished essay/assignment

In-text citation:

The topic of the essay (Jubb, 2014)…

Reference list:

Jubb, A. (2014). Did the Allies win the battle of the Atlantic because of superior air power? University of Birmingham: unpublished essay.