Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Referencing is about maintaining academic integrity. It is used
- To show that you understand the topic and can explain in your own thoughts.
- To demonstrate that you have read widely and deeply.
- To enable the reader to locate where you obtained each quote or idea.
- To avoid plagiarism and uphold academic honesty.
Steps to Referencing
At the time of reading the literature, record all of the information (descriptive elements) necessary to create a citation either using referencing software or record manually. It is vital to be accurate and clear at this stage to save time later on.
The data you record should include:
- Edition (1st, 2nd, reprint ed. revised ed. etc.)
- Page numbers for direct quotations
- Place of publication
- Date of publication
- Web address if online resources and Date Accessed
It is vital to be accurate and clear at this stage to save time later on.
You may decide to maintain a master reference list on your computer in a separate document or as a database.
You may wish to write all details on the print copy of an article or keep a system of filing cards for each reference item you use.
Tip! For large research projects where it is necessary to maintain a central library of references and organise your references in folders or groups, we recommend you use referencing software e.g. Mendeley or Zotero.
Construct your citations within the text of your essay using the appropriate guidelines for the citation style you are using.
The styles most commonly used at the IOE are Harvard and APA.
Tip! Check your programme handbook to verify which citation style you are expected to use.
You are expected to use in-text citations and create a list of references at the end of your essay or paper.
Be sure to balance your use of direct quotations, paraphrasing and summarising.
Tip!The difference between a reference list and bibliography is as follows: a bibliography also provides a detailed list of references but it also includes readings you may have consulted and not cited. It is therefore a larger group of works than a reference list. Sometimes this list will be annotated to tell the reader why the author considers the work worthy to be in the bibliography. This is an annotated bibliography.