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Referencing with APA: Examples E-H

eBook (from the internet)

To be made up of:

Author/editor
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title (in italics)
Publication details
Retrieved from URL or doi:
 

In-text citation:

Wear (2000) suggests…

Reference list:

Wear, A. (2000). Knowledge and practice in English medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/bham/detail.action?docID=5004608

eBook from Ebrary (Dawsonera)

To be made up of:

Author/editor
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title (in italics)
Publication details
Retrieved from (name of database)

 

In-text citation:

Wear (2000) suggests...

(Ball, 2012)

Reference list:

Wear, A. (2000). Knowledge and practice in English medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from University of Birmingham Ebrary database.

Ball, S. J. (2012.). Foucault, power, and education. Routledge Ltd. Retrieved from https://www.dawsonera.com.

Electronic Discussion Groups and Bulletin Boards

To be made up of:

Author of message
Year of message
Subject of the message (in single quotation marks)
Discussion group or bulletin board (in italics)
Date posted
Email retrieved from…

In-text citation:

This was discussed by Jameson (2014)…

Reference list:

Jameson, A. (2014). ‘International queries. British Business Schools Librarians Group discussion list (2014, March 13). Email retrieved from lisbusinessschools@gmail.com

Encyclopaedia Entry

To be made up of:

Author
Year of publication
Entry title
In Encyclopaedia name (in italics)
Edition (if relevant)
Place of publication: publisher

In-text citation:

It is obvious that (Crystal, 2007, p. 45)…

(Ford-Martin, 2003)

(Norum, 2008)

Reference list:

Crystal, D. (2007). Medical science. In The Penguin Concise Encyclopaedia. (3rd edn.). London: Penguin.

Ford-Martin, P. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In E. Thackery&M. Harris (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of mental disorders (Vol.1, pp. 226-228). Detroit, MI: Gale.

Norum, K. (2008). Artifact Analysis. In Lisa M. Given (Ed.), The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods.  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963909.n14

Encyclopaedia

To be made up of:

Author
Year of publication
Encyclopaedia name (in italics)
Edition (if relevant)
Place of publication: publisher

In-text citation:

It is obvious that (Crystal, 2007)…

Reference list:

Crystal, D. (2007). The Penguin Concise Encyclopaedia. (3rd edn.). London: Penguin.

European Union Publication

To be made up of:

Name of EU institution
Year of publication 
Title (in italics)
Place of publication: publisher

In-text citation:

The predicted migration of labour (European Commission, 2007)…

Reference list:

European Commission. (2007). Making globalisation profitable. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Exhibition

To be made up of:

Art Gallery title (or similar)
Date of exhibition
Title of exhibition (in italics)
Location

In-text citation:

The acclaimed exhibition is one to behold (Tate Modern, 2012)…

Reference list:

Tate Modern. (2012 September 12-2013 January 13). Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde. London.

Facebook

To be made up of:

Author (surname followed by initials) and [given name is in square brackets]
Year, month, day (in round brackets)
Title of page
[Facebook status update]
Retrieved from URL
 

In-text citation:

It is clear that the campus for 2016 will be a hive of activity (University of Birmingham, 2015).

Reference list:

University of Birmingham. (2015, June 18). New for 2016 on campus will be a fabulous library, filled with new and emerging technologies… [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/unibirmingham

Financial Reports (from online database)

To be made up of:

Publishing organisation
Year of publication
Title of extract (in italics)
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

BSkyB’s profit margin rose by over 7 per cent in the financial year 2011-2012 (Bureau van Dijk, 2013).

Reference list:

Bureau van Dijk. (2013). BSkyB plc company report. Retrieved from http://fame.bvdep.com/bskyb

Foreign Language Book Transliteration

To be made up of:
 
Author/editor (surname, initial)
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title (in italics)
[Transliterated title] (in square brackets]
Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)
Place of publication:
Publisher
 
Note:  If the text is in a non-Latin alphabet, this must be translated into the language of the paper.  So for 
 
In-text citation:

Arabic liteature will often cites the poetry of the 13th century Persian Sufi master Jalaluddin Rumi (Najm, 1966).

If you are referring to or quoting Akira Kurasaw from a non-Western source, e.g.  黒澤 明 and citing in an English paper, the in-text citation would be, (Kurasawa, 1954)

Reference list:

Najm, Y. (1966). Al-qissah fi al-adab Al-Arabi al-hadith [The novel in modern Arabic literature]. Beirut: Dar Al-Thaqafah.

七人の侍 transliterated is Shichinin no Samurai, and so the reference would be:

Motoki, S. (Producer), & Kurosawa, A. (Director). (1954). Shichinin no samurai [Seven samurai; motion picture]. Japan: Toho.

Google+

To be made up of:

Author
Year and date of publication
Title of page (if not same as author)
Message
Media type
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

It is obvious in this day and age (Guild of Students, 2015) that…

Reference list:          

Guild of Students, University of Birmingham. (2015, June 4). Ready to move out? Drop off your non-perishable food at our collection trolley, in support of Sparkhill food bank. [Google+ post]. Retrieved from https://plus.google.com/+guildofstudents/posts

Government and Official Publications

To be made up of:

Country
Government department
Juristiction (if appropriate)
Year of publication
Title
Retrieved from....
 

In-text citation:

In 2011, the UK government published a report on helping small firms start to grow and prosper ((Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, 2011, p.3).  

Reference list:

Great Britain. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. (2011). Bigger, better business: Helping small firms start, grow and prosper. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32225/11-515-bigger-better-business-helping-small-firms.pdf

Ministry of Justice. (2012). Licence conditions and temporary travelling abroad (Probation Instructions PI 20/2012). Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/offenders/probation-instructions/pi-20-2012-licence-conditions-and-temporary-travelling-abroad.doc.

Graffiti

To be made up of:

Title (or brief description)
Date of graffiti
Media type
Location

In-text citation:

The graffiti, ‘Jimmy no!’ (2015) demonstrated…

Reference list:

Jimmy no! (2015, June 23) (graffiti). York, UK: 15 West Street.

Graph

To be made up of:

Author
Year of publication Title of book (in italics)
(graph)
Place of publication: publisher

In-text citation:

The effects of the atoms (Gray, 2009, p. 87).

Reference list:

Gray, A. (2009). How to reference scientific papers (graph). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hansard

To be made up of:

House of…
Year of debate 
House of … Debate
Date of debate (in italics) 
Volume number
Column number
Retrieved from…

In-text citation:

Dr Sugar expressed his views quite clearly (HC Deb, 2009)…

Reference list:

House of Commons. (2009). January 20 Debate (vol 500, col 1990). Retrieved from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/hcdeb1990

Historical Books (in online collections)

To be made up of:

Author/editor
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Retrieved from
Original work published…

In-text citation:

James’ measured plans (1654)…

Reference list:

James, P. (1654). Ruins of the palace at Thermopylae. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/birmingham (Original work published 1654).

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers

To be made up of:

House of…
Year of publication 
Title (in italics)
Paper number
Publication details

In-text citation:

Parliamentary reports for the year included renewable energy (House of Lords, 2004).

Reference list:

House of Lords. (2004). Electricity from renewables: the first report. (HL 2003-2004 (19)). London: The Stationary Office.